Copper can be extracted from its ore by: Underground: sinking a vertical shaft into the Earth to an appropriate depth and driving horizontal tunnels into the ore. Open pit: 90% of ore is mined by this method. Ores near the surface can be quarried after removal of the surface layers. The ore is treated with dilute sulfuric acid.
Key words: lowgrade ores; copper minerals; column leaching. 1. Introduction The highest quantities of copper, lead and zinc in the world are obtained by sulphide ore treatment. The reserves of highgrade ores from which the extraction of nonferrous, rare and noble metals is technologically and economically feasible are becoming scarcer
The principal copper ore mineral is chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2), which is commonly smelted to yield a matte containing ∼50% the presence of silica flux, iron is selectively oxidized to a slag. Figure 14 shows a PSD for the Cu–Fe–S–O system at 1 atm SO 2 as a function of temperature (Rosenqvist 1978).Unlike the system for lead, the copper and Cu 2 S melts are nearly immiscible ...
01/01/2016 · 1. Introduction. The association of gold and copper mineralization in commercially viable ore is a common occurrence. At one end of the spectrum is the predominantly copper ore, which contains levels of gold mineralization. This would be uneconomic to mine for its gold content, but the gold provides a significant opportunity value.
Copper Mining and Extraction: Oxide Ores. Copper is refined from ores in the ground, either through underground or openpit mines. Most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. Extraction of sulfide ores is covered in more detail in Copper Mining and Extraction: Sulfide Ores (11–14), but is introduced here because an ...
Copper Smelting means that the concentrated ore is heated strongly with silicon dioxide (silica), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and air in a furnace. The major steps in the extraction of copper are. Copper in Chalcopyrite is reduced to copper sulphide. Just like in Blast Furnaces, calcium carbonate is added as a flux to create the slag.
Copper Sulphate Solutions. Diagram of Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate. Three different stages are involved when extracting copper from nonsulphide ores. 1. Over a very long time and on a vast scale, the reaction of the ore with a dilute acid (such as dilute sulphuric acid) produces an extremely dilute copper sulphate by solvent extraction. 2.
Lead ochre PbO. Extraction: Lead is mainly extracted from the sulphide ore galena. Galena contains lead sulphide and small quantities of silver. 1. Concentration: The ore is concentrated by froth floatation process. 2. Smelting in a Reverberatory furnace: The concentrated ore is roasted in a reverberatory furnace at a moderate temperature.
Extraction and refining. The extraction of copper from ore is normally carried out in three major steps. The first step, mineral processing, is to liberate the copper minerals and remove waste constituents—such as alumina, limestone, pyrite, and silica—so that the copper minerals and other nonferrous minerals of value are concentrated into a product containing between 20 and 30 percent copper.